Volume 4, Issue 2 (12-2022)                   Plant Biotechnol Persa 2022, 4(2): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Department of Chemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria , hassan.abubakar@ssu.edu.ng
Abstract:   (257 Views)
Objective: Fungal infection, particularly in Nigeria, is a serious public health issue and it is one of the most common infections in Sub-saharan Africa. Thus, in this work, phytochemical screening, acute toxicity and antifungal evaluation on the methanol extracts of the different parts (leaves, seed and aerial part) of Mitracarpus hirtus against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Histoplasm capsulatum, Mucor sp, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gallinae, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, and Trichophyton rubrum using agar well diffusion and broth dilution techniques. [m1] 
Material and Methods: The phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of the different parts of the plant revealed the presence of tannins saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids and the median lethal dose (LD50) was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg which indicates that the plant is non-toxic.
Results: Susceptibility test for the methanol extracts showed mean zone of inhibition ranging from 19.33 – 23.33 mm against the test organisms while the standard drug, Fulcin had 24.33 – 31.67 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts ranges between 0.25 - 0.50 mg/mL while the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranges between 0.25 – 1.00 mg/mL against some of the fungal pathogens.
Conclusion: The findings of this study have revealed the antifungal efficacy of methanol extracts of the different part of M. hirtus which supports the ethno-medicinal claim of the use of the plant in the treatment of fungal infections.

Type of Study: Research | Subject: Herbal Drugs
Received: 2022/07/17 | Accepted: 2022/12/1 | Published: 2022/12/1

1. Casadevall A. Fungal Diseases in the 21st Century: The Near and Far Horizons. Pathogens and Immunity, 2018; 3(2):183-96.
2. Centers for diseases control and preventions. CDC 24/7: saving lives, protecting people 2014.
3. Masoko P, Mmushi TJ, Mogashoa MM, Mokgotho MP, Ampuru LJ and Howard RL. In Vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea extracts against pathogenic yeasts. African Journal of Biotech. 2008; 7(20): 3521-3526.
4. Daniel Z.P.F and Ilan S. S. Emerging Fungal Infections: New Patients, New Patterns, and New Pathogen. Journal of Fungi, 2019; 5, 67; doi:10.3390/jof5030067
5. Sathiya S, Karthikeyan B, Jaleel AC, Azooz MM and Iqhad M. Antibiogram of Catharanthus Roseus Extracts. Global Journal of Molucular Science. 2008; 3(1): 1-7.
6. Nayak BS and Lekley MP. Catharanthus Roseus Flower Extracts has Wound Healing Activity in Sprague Dawley rats; 2006.
7. Alqasim AM, Gabriel O and Is-Haq IU. Plant Remedies Practiced by Keffi People in the Management of Dermatosis. Jour Med Plants Studies. 2013; 1 (5).112-118.
8. L. Lagnika, F. Gbaguidi, E. Anago, Z. Adeoti, M. Moudachirou, A. Sanni, J. Quetinleclercq, Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of three compounds isolated from Mitracarpus scaber, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 4(3) (2010) 820–824.
9. Ouadja, B., Anani, K., Djeri, B., Ameyapoh, Y.O. and D.S. Karou, Evaluation of the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and anti-radical activities of Mitracarpus scaber (Rubiaceae), J. Med. Plants Res. 12 (28) (2018) 493–499. doi:10.5897/JMPR2018.6631.
10. Aboh, M.I. Olayinka, B.O. Adeshina, G.O. Oladosu, P. Antifungal Activities of Phyto Compounds from Mitracarpus villosus (Sw.) DC from Abuja, Nigeria Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 4(2) 86–91. doi: 10.5923/j.microbiology.20140402.07
11. B/kudu, A.A., Odda, J., Aliero, J.J., Oloro, J. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Ethanolic Crude extract of M. Hirtus Plant against Dermatophytes, Galore Int. J. Heal.Sci. Res. 2018; 3(1) 18–23.
12. John-africa, L.B., Danjuma, N.M., Anuka, J.A., Chindo, B.A. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Ethylacetate Extract of Mitracarpus villosus Leaves in1 Rodents, European J. Med. Plants. 2016; 15(3) 1–10. doi:10.9734/EJMP/2016/26355.
13. Fabri, R.L., Grazul, R.M. de Carvalho, L.O. Coimbra, E.S. Cardoso, G.M.M. de Souza-Fagundes, E.M. da Silva, A.D., E.Scio, Antitumor, Antibiotic and Antileishmanial Properties of the Pyranonaphthoquinone Psychorubrin from Mitracarpus frigidus, Ann. Brazilian Acad. Sci. 2012; 84(4) 1081–1089.
14. Sadino, A. Muhtadi, A. Susilawati, Y. A Review on Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Activity from Rubiaceae Family, Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2019; 9(7) 36–41. doi:10.7897/2230- 8407.097122.
15. Abere, T.A. Onyekweli, A.O. Ukoh, G.C. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of the Extract of Mitracarpus scaber Leaves Formulated as Syrup, Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 2007; 6(1) 679–682.
16. Obiora, O.F. Bege, J. Agat, I.J. Barnabas, N.J. Crude Extracts of Mitracarpus scaber Roots Significantly Ameliorate Paracetamol (PCM) Induced Liver Damage in Rats, Am. J. Biomed. Life Sci. 2019; 7(6) 148–154. doi:10.11648/j.ajbls.20190706.14.
17. Idris, M.L., Nkafamiya, I.I, Akinterinwa, A., Japari, J.I. Preliminary Studies on SomeMedicinal Plants in Girei, Adamawa State of Nigeria, Br. J. Pharm. Res. 2015; 6(3) 203–213. doi:10.9734/BJPR/2015/16205.
18. Fabri, R.L Maria, D. Aragão, D.O. Florêncio, J.R. De Castro, N. Pinto, C. Carolina, A. Mattos, A. Marcos, P. Coelho, Z. Christina, M. Nogueira, M. Vasconcelos, E.G. Pinto, P.D.F. Scio, E. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis and Effects of the Medicinal Plant Species Mitracarpus frigidus on Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms, Biomed Res. Int. 2014. 1–10.
19. Christianah, A.E. Opeyemi, A. Adewale, O.A. Olorunmola, F.O. Agbedahunsi, J.M. Ogundaini, A.O. Antisickling and Radical Scavenging Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants and Compounds from Mitracarpus villosus (Sw.) DC.Cham, European J. Med. Plants. 2018; 24(4) 1–10. doi:10.9734/EJMP/2018/42706.
20. Bisignano, G. Sanogo, R. Marino, A. Aquino, R. Angelo, V. D, Germano, M.P., De Pasquale, R Pizza, C. Antimicrobial activity of Mitracarpus scaber extract and isolated constituents, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2000; 30: 105–108.
21. Trease, K., and Evans, W. C. Text Book of Pharmacognosy, 14th edition, Balliere, Tindall, London, 1996; pp 251 – 293.
22. Lorke, D. A New Approach to Practical Acute Toxicity Testing. Archives of Toxicology. 1983; 54: 275-287.
23. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts: Approved standard M27-A2 2002; Wayne (PA).
24. Jamuna S, Subramaniam P, Karthika K. In vitro antifungal activity of leaf and root extracts of the medicinal plant, Hypochaeris radicata. Inter. J. Phar. Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 5, Issue (3), ISSN- 0975-1491. ISSN- 0975-1491
25. Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WN, Schreckenber PC, Winn WC. Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 1997; 5th Ed. Lippincott. Raven Publishers, Philadelphia
26. Musa I. Abdullahi, Ahmed Uba, Amina J. Yusuf, Ahmed Olowo-okere, Ibrahim Nasir, Abdulrahman Muntaka, Alhassan M. Alhassan, Sani Sa’idu Bello, Celestina O. Alebiosu, Abdulrashid Umar, Maryam Yahaya and Hassan Abubakar. Comparative antimicrobial activity of fractions of Vernonia glaberrima against selected human pathogens. Pharmacy & Bioresources 2017; 14(2), 169-174
27. Cowan, M.M. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents. Clinical Microbiolo Reviews, 1999; 12 (14): 564-582
28. Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Biodiversity: A continuing source of novel drug leads. Pure and Applied Chemistry 2005; 77: 7–24. https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200577010007
29. Avoseh, O., Oyedeji, O., Rungqu, P., Nkeh-chungag, B., Oyedeji, A. Cymbopogon Species; Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and the Pharmacological Importance, Molecules. 2015; 20, 7438–7453. doi:10.3390/molecules20057438.
30. Suleiman, S. and Suleiman, F.L. Efficacy of Leaf Powders of Senna obtusifolia (L.) and Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. on the Survival of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] on Sorghum Grains During Storage, Entomol. Appl. Sci. 2015; 2(1) 34–38.Wills, E.A., Redinbo, M.R., Perfect, J.R. and Del Poeta, M.D. New potential targets for antifungal development. Emerging Therapeutic Targets 2000; 4, 1–32.
31. Vardanya, R.S and Hruby, V.J. synthesis of essential Drugs. 1st Edition, Elseier, Amsterdam. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-00052166-8/50036-4
32. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Casadevall, A., Galgiani, J.N., Odds, F.C. and Rex, J.H. An insight into the antifungal pipeline: selected new molecules and beyond. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2010; 9, 719–727.
33. Chavan, P.S. and Tupe, S.G. Antifungal activity and mechanism of action of carvacrol and thymol against vineyard and wine spoilage yeasts. Food Control, 2014; 46, 115–120.
34. Sant, D.G., Tupe, S.G. Ramana C.V. and Deshpande M.V. Fungal cell membrane-promising drug target for antifungal therapy. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2016; 121, 1498-1510. doi:10.1111/jam.13301

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.