Volume 2, Issue 1 (6-2020)                   pbp 2020, 2(1): 48-54 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
2- Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran , rahimi.6977@gmail.com
Abstract:   (4104 Views)
Genetic modification is a specific part of gene technology that changes the genetic structure of living organisms, such as animals, plants, or microorganisms. Genetically Modified, is known with such names as Transgenic or Transgenic. In recent years, discussions have arisen about the potential effects of transgenic corn on health There are also discussions about its effect on other insects and other plants due to the gene flow The study was conducted as a systematic double-blind review by searching the Internet at the Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Highwire, MD Consult and Scopus databases. From the result of this study, we can come to a Conclusion that any transgenic product is not usable and can have many disadvantages, while some of them are completely safe and usable.
Full-Text [PDF 223 kb]   (1432 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2020/01/22 | Accepted: 2019/04/19 | Published: 2020/06/20

1. World Health Organization. Health Worker Role in Providing Safe Abortion Care and Post Abortion Contraception. World Health Organization; 2015 Dec 17.
2. World Health Organization. World health statistics 2015. World Health Organization; 2015 May 14.
3. World Health Organization, World Health Organization. Management of Substance Abuse Unit. Global status report on alcohol and health, 2014. World Health Organization; 2014.
4. World Health Organization. World report on ageing and health. World Health Organization; 2015 Oct 22.
5. National Center for Health Statistics (US. Health, United States, 2013: With special feature on prescription drugs.
6. US Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. 2014;17.
7. Streiner DL, Norman GR, Cairney J. Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use. Oxford University Press, USA; 2015.
8. Ralley L, Schuch W, Fraser PD, Bramley PM. Genetic modification of tomato with the tobacco lycopene β-cyclase gene produces high β-carotene and lycopene fruit. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 2016 Sep 1;71(9-10):295-301.
9. Lu H, McComas KA, Besley JC. Messages promoting genetic modification of crops in the context of climate change: Evidence for psychological reactance. Appetite. 2017 Jan 1;108:104-16.
10. Hu H, Xiong L. Genetic engineering and breeding of drought-resistant crops. Annual review of plant biology. 2014 Apr 29;65:715-41.
11. Barrows G, Sexton S, Zilberman D. Agricultural biotechnology: The promise and prospects of genetically modified crops. The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2014 Jan 1;28(1):99-119.
12. Long SP, Marshall-Colon A, Zhu XG. Meeting the global food demand of the future by engineering crop photosynthesis and yield potential. Cell. 2015 Mar 26;161(1):56-66.
13. Kanchiswamy CN, Sargent DJ, Velasco R, Maffei ME, Malnoy M. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops. Trends in biotechnology. 2015 Feb 28;33(2):62-4.
14. Ladics GS, Bartholomaeus A, Bregitzer P, Doerrer NG, Gray A, Holzhauser T, Jordan M, Keese P, Kok E, Macdonald P, Parrott W. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants. Transgenic research. 2015 Aug 1;24(4):587-603.
15. Fichtner F, Castellanos RU, Ülker B. Precision genetic modifications: a new era in molecular biology and crop improvement. Planta. 2014 Apr 1;239(4):921-39.
16. Palmgren MG, Edenbrandt AK, Vedel SE, Andersen MM, Landes X, Østerberg JT, Falhof J, Olsen LI, Christensen SB, Sandøe P, Gamborg C. Are we ready for back-to-nature crop breeding?. Trends in plant science. 2015 Mar 31;20(3):155-64.
17. Jacobsen SE, Sørensen M, Pedersen SM, Weiner J. Feeding the world: genetically modified crops versus agricultural biodiversity. Agronomy for sustainable development. 2013 Oct 1;33(4):651-62.
18. Simó C, Ibáez C, Valdés A, Cifuentes A, García-Cañas V. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops. International journal of molecular sciences. 2014 Oct 20;15(10):18941-66.
19. Herman RA, Price WD. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2013 Feb 25;61(48):11695-701.
20. Prado JR, Segers G, Voelker T, Carson D, Dobert R, Phillips J, Cook K, Cornejo C, Monken J, Grapes L, Reynolds T. Genetically engineered crops: from idea to product. Annual review of plant biology. 2014 Apr 29;65.
21. Sala F, Rigano MM, Barbante A, Basso B, Walmsley AM, Castiglione S. Vaccine antigen production in transgenic plants: strategies, gene constructs and perspectives. Vaccine. 2003 Jan 30;21(7):803-8.
22. Meister R, Rajani MS, Ruzicka D, Schachtman DP. Challenges of modifying root traits in crops for agriculture. Trends in plant science. 2014 Dec 31;19(12):779-88.
23. Nicolia A, Manzo A, Veronesi F, Rosellini D. An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research. Critical reviews in biotechnology. 2014 Mar 1;34(1):77-88.
24. Bruce TJ, Aradottir GI, Smart LE, Martin JL, Caulfield JC, Doherty A, Sparks CA, Woodcock CM, Birkett MA, Napier JA, Jones HD. The first crop plant genetically engineered to release an insect pheromone for defence. Scientific reports. 2015;5.
25. Fernandez-Cornejo J, Wechsler S, Livingston M, Mitchell L. Genetically engineered crops in the United States.
26. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Genetically engineered crops: experiences and prospects. National Academies Press; 2017 Jan 28.
27. Bawa AS, Anilakumar KR. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns—a review. Journal of food science and technology. 2013 Dec 1;50(6):1035-46.
28. McComas KA, Besley JC, Steinhardt J. Factors influencing US consumer support for genetic modification to prevent crop disease. Appetite. 2014 Jul 1;78:8-14.
29. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Genetically engineered crops: experiences and prospects. National Academies Press; 2017 Jan 28.
30. Frewer LJ, van der Lans IA, Fischer AR, Reinders MJ, Menozzi D, Zhang X, van den Berg I, Zimmermann KL. Public perceptions of agri-food applications of genetic modification–a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2013 Apr 30;30(2):142-52.
31. Landrigan PJ, Benbrook C. GMOs, herbicides, and public health. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015 Aug 20;373(8):693-5.
32. Lin HT, Lee WC, Tsai YT, Wu JH, Yen GC, Yeh SD, Cheng YH, Chang SC, Liao JW. Subchronic Immunotoxicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Virus-Resistant Papaya in Rats. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2016 Jul 19;64(29):5935-40.
33. Tan X, Zhou X, Tang Y, Lv J, Zhang L, Sun L, Yang Y, Miao Y, Jiang H, Chen G, Huang Z. Immunotoxicological Evaluation of Genetically Modified Rice Expressing Cry1Ab/Ac Protein (TT51-1) by a 6-Month Feeding Study on Cynomolgus Monkeys. PloS one. 2016 Sep 29;11(9):e0163879.
34. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Genetically engineered crops: experiences and prospects. National Academies Press; 2017 Jan 28.
35. Scott SE, Inbar Y, Rozin P. Evidence for absolute moral opposition to genetically modified food in the United States. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2016 May;11(3):315-24.
36. Séralini GE, Clair E, Mesnage R, Gress S, Defarge N, Malatesta M, Hennequin D, de Vendômois JS. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerantgenetically modified maize. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2014 Dec 1;26(1):14.
37. Dobnik D, Spilsberg B, Bogožalec Košir A, Holst-Jensen A, Žel J. Multiplex quantification of 12 European :union: authorized genetically modified maize lines with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction. Analytical chemistry. 2015 Jul 29;87(16):8218-26.
38. Huang X, Chen L, Xu J, Ji HF, Zhu S, Chen H. Rapid visual detection of phytase gene in genetically modified maize using loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. Food chemistry. 2014 Aug 1;156:184-9.
39. Ramadan MF, Elsanhoty RM, Al-Turki AI. Usage of Genetically Modified Foods: The Extent of Genetically Modified Rice, Maize, and Soy Consumption in Saudi Arabia.
40. He XY, Tang MZ, Luo YB, Li X, Cao SS, Yu JJ, Delaney B, Huang KL. A 90-day toxicology study of transgenic lysine-rich maize grain (Y642) in Sprague–Dawley rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009 Feb 28;47(2):425-32.
41. De Vendômois JS, Roullier F, Cellier D, Séralini GE. A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2009;5(7):706.
42. Kılıç A, Akay MT. A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008 Mar 31;46(3):1164-70.
43. Trabalza-Marinucci M, Brandi G, Rondini C, Avellini L, Giammarini C, Costarelli S, Acuti G, Orlandi C, Filippini G, Chiaradia E, Malatesta M. A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep. Livestock Science. 2008 Feb 29;113(2):178-90.
44. Chowdhury EH, Kuribara H, Hino A, Sultana P, Mikami O, Shimada N, Guruge KS, Saito M, Nakajima Y. Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11. Journal of animal science. 2003 Oct 1;81(10):2546-51.
45. Buzoianu SG, Walsh MC, Rea MC, Cassidy JP, Ryan TP, Ross RP, Gardiner GE, Lawlor PG. Transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified maize to nulliparous sows and offspring on offspring growth and health. Journal of animal science. 2013 Jan 1;91(1):318-30.
46. Séralini GE, Mesnage R, Defarge N, Gress S, Hennequin D, Clair E, Malatesta M, De Vendômois JS. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013 Mar 31;53:476-83.
47. Carman JA, Vlieger HR, Ver Steeg LJ, Sneller VE, Robinson GW, Clinch-Jones CA, Haynes JI, Edwards JW. A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet. J Org Syst. 2013 Jun;8(1):38-54.
48. He XY, Huang KL, Li X, Qin W, Delaney B, Luo YB. Comparison of grain from corn rootworm resistant transgenic DAS-59122-7 maize with non-transgenic maize grain in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2008 Jun 30;46(6):1994-2002.
49. Lutz B, Wiedemann S, Einspanier R, Mayer J, Albrecht C. Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1453-6.
50. Paul V, Guertler P, Wiedemann S, Meyer HH. Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize (MON810) in relation to total dietary feed proteins in dairy cow digestion. Transgenic research. 2010 Aug 1;19(4):683-9.
51. Buzoianu SG, Walsh MC, Rea MC, Cassidy JP, Ross RP, Gardiner GE, Lawlor PG. Effect of feeding genetically modified Bt MON810 maize to∼ 40-day-old pigs for 110 days on growth and health indicators. animal. 2012 Oct;6(10):1609-19.
52. Reiko Teshima 1 , Takahiro Watanabe, Haruyo Okunuki, Kazuto Isuzugawa, Hiroshi Akiyama, Hiroshi Onodera, Toshio Imai, Masatake Toyoda, Jun-ichi Sawada. Effect of subchronic feeding of genetically modified corn (CBH351) on immune system in BN rats and B10A mice. 食品衛生学雑誌. 2002;43(5):273-9.
53. Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Yoshioka M, Guruge KS, Yamanaka N, Nakajima Y, Miyazaki S. Effects of feeding calves genetically modified corn Bt11: a clinico-biochemical study. Journal of veterinary medical science. 2006;68(10):1113-5.
54. Nakajima O, Teshima R, Takagi K, Okunuki H, Sawada JI. ELISA method for monitoring human serum IgE specific for Cry1Ab introduced into genetically modified corn. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2007 Feb 28;47(1):90-5.
55. Sagstad A, Sanden M, Haugland Ø, Hansen AC, Olsvik PA, Hemre GI. Evaluation of stress‐and immune‐response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near‐isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize. Journal of fish diseases. 2007 Apr 1;30(4):201-12.
56. Brake J, Vlachos D. Evaluation of transgenic event 176" Bt" corn in broiler chickens. Poultry science. 1998 May 1;77(5):648-53.
57. Chowdhury EH, Mikami O, Murata H, Sultana P, Shimada N, Yoshioka M, Guruge KS, Yamamoto S, Miyazaki S, Yamanaka N, Nakajima Y. Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11. Journal of Food Protection. 2004 Feb;67(2):365-70.
58. Barriere Y, Verite R, Brunschwig P, Surault F, Emile JC. Feeding value of corn silage estimated with sheep and dairy cows is not altered by genetic incorporation of Bt176 resistance to Ostrinia nubilalis. Journal of Dairy Science. 2001 Aug 1;84(8):1863-71.
59. Aulrich K, Böhme H, Daenicke R, Halle I, Flachowsky G. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition. Archives of Animal Nutrition. 2001 Jul 1;54(3):183-95.
60. YONEMOCHI C, IKEDA T, HARADA C, KUSAMA T, HANAZUMI M. Influence of transgenic corn (CBH 351, named Starlink) on health condition of dairy cows and transfer of Cry9C protein and cry9C gene to milk, blood, liver and muscle. Animal Science Journal. 2003 Apr 1;74(2):81-8.
61. Batista R, Nunes B, Carmo M, Cardoso C, São José H, de Almeida AB, Manique A, Bento L, Ricardo CP, Oliveira MM. Lack of detectable allergenicity of transgenic maize and soya samples. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2005 Aug 31;116(2):403-10.
62. Flachowsky G, Halle I, Aulrich K. Long term feeding of Bt-corn–a ten-generation study with quails. Archives of animal nutrition. 2005 Dec 1;59(6):449-51.
63. Guertler P, Paul V, Steinke K, Wiedemann S, Preißinger W, Albrecht C, Spiekers H, Schwarz FJ, Meyer HH. Long-term feeding of genetically modified corn (MON810)—Fate of cry1Ab DNA and recombinant protein during the metabolism of the dairy cow. Livestock Science. 2010 Jul 31;131(2):250-9.
64. Séralini GE, Cellier D, de Vendomois JS. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2007 May 1;52(4):596-602.
65. Steinke K, Guertler P, Paul V, Wiedemann S, Ettle T, Albrecht C, Meyer HH, Spiekers H, Schwarz FJ. Effects of long‐term feeding of genetically modified corn (event MON810) on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition. 2010 Oct 1;94(5).
66. Bøhn T, Primicerio R, Hessen DO, Traavik T. Reduced fitness of Daphnia magna fed a Bt-transgenic maize variety. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2008 Nov 1;55(4):584-92.
67. Doull J, Gaylor D, Greim HA, Lovell DP, Lynch B, Munro IC. Report of an Expert Panel on the Reanalysis by Seralini et al of a 90-Day Study Conducted by Monsanto in Support of the Safety of a Genetically Modified Corn Variety. MON. 2007;863:2073-85.
68. Hammond BG, Dudek R, Lemen JK, Nemeth MA. Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn borer-protected corn. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2006 Jul 31;44(7):1092-9.
69. Séralini GE, Clair E, Mesnage R, Gress S, Defarge N, Malatesta M, Hennequin D, De Vendômois JS. RETRACTED: Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Food and chemical toxicology. 2012 Nov 1;50(11):4221-31.
70. Appenzeller LM, Malley L, MacKenzie SA, Hoban D, Delaney B. Subchronic feeding study with genetically modified stacked trait lepidopteran and coleopteran resistant (DAS-Ø15Ø7-1xDAS-59122-7) maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food and chemical toxicology. 2009 Jul 31;47(7):1512-20.
71. MacKenzie SA, Lamb I, Schmidt J, Deege L, Morrisey MJ, Harper M, Layton RJ, Prochaska LM, Sanders C, Locke M, Mattsson JL. Thirteen week feeding study with transgenic maize grain containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 in Sprague–Dawley rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2007 Apr 30;45(4):551-62.

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.