Volume 2, Issue 1 (6-2020)                   Plant Biotechnol Persa 2020, 2(1): 26-34 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Khadem E, Nafari A H, Safarzadeh A, Falavand Jozaei R, Almasian M, Elyasi H. The role of bacteria in the treatment of cancer: A comprehensive review. Plant Biotechnol Persa. 2020; 2 (1) :26-34
URL: http://pbp.medilam.ac.ir/article-1-47-en.html
Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran , Khadem.erf@ymail.com
Abstract:   (1344 Views)
Cancer is an important public health issue worldwide and is the main cause of death in the developed countries and the second cause of death in the developing countries. There are several treatments for cancer such as photodynamic therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Current cancer treatments have various side effects, including the gradual resistance of cancer cells to treatment. The era of targeted cancer therapy has brought about new clinical approaches such as antibodies, small molecules, antiangiogenics, and antivirals. Yet even these strategies remain limited in their ability to accumulate in tumors and tumor penetration, which are the main obstacles in the treatment of cancer. Historic efforts to harness living organisms to fight cancer have recently been revived in the field of synthetic biology. Certain circulating bacteria can intrinsically home in on tumors, and can be engineered to controllably induce local cytotoxicity while remaining unobtrusive to the host system. Due to the ineffectiveness of conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy in advanced tumor stages, resistance to treatment and non-specificity of these treatments, with the advancement of studies in this field, it is hoped that bacterial therapy will add a new dimension to cancer treatment.
Full-Text [PDF 218 kb]   (885 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2019/11/2 | Accepted: 2020/06/16 | Published: 2020/06/19

1. Souho T, Lamboni L, Xiao L, Yang G. Cancer hallmarks and malignancy features: Gateway for improved targeted drug delivery. Biotechnol Adv. 2018 Aug 2. pii: S0734-9750(18)30133-2.
2. Kranthi TKK, Baba AB, Kowshik J, Reddy GB, Nagini S. Gedunin, A Neem Limonoid in Combination With Epalrestat Inhibits Cancer Hallmarks By Attenuating Aldose Reductase-Driven Oncogenic Signaling In SCC131 Oral Cancer Cells. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018 Jul 30.
3. Maley et al. "Classifying the evolutionary and ecological features of neoplasms." Nat Rev Cancer .17.10 (2017): 605-619.
4. Calin, George A, Carlo M. Croce. "MicroRNA signatures in human cancers." Nat Rev Cancer 6.11 (2006): 857.
5. Ezzati, Majid, et al. "Role of smoking in global and regional cancer epidemiology: current patterns and data needs." Int J Cancer 116.6 (2005): 963-971.
6. World Health Organization. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.
7. Wild, Christopher P., Bernard W. Stewart, eds. World cancer report 2014. World Health Organization, 2014.
8. Pradeu, Thomas, Edwin L. Cooper. "The danger theory: 20 years later." Front Immunol. 2012 Sep 17;3:287
9. Kodytkova D et al. Trends in incidence of childhood cancers in the Czech Republic: population- based analysis of national registries (1994-2014). Neoplasma. 2018;65(4):620-629.
10. Cancer Fact sheet N°29". World Health Organization. February 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
11. Ezzati, Majid, et al. "Role of smoking in global and regional cancer epidemiology: current patterns and data needs." Int J Cancer 116.6 (2005): 963-971.
12. Ezzati, Majid, and Alan D. Lopez. "Estimates of global mortality attributable to smoking in 2000." The Lancet362.9387 (2003): 847-852.
13. Plummer M, de Martel C, Vignat J, Ferlay J, Bray F, Franceschi S. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2012: a synthetic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2016 Sep;4(9):e609-16. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30143-7.
14. Cancer Fact sheet N°297. World Health Organization. February 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
15. Rahib et al. "Projecting cancer incidence and deaths to 2030: the unexpected burden of thyroid, liver, and pancreas cancers in the United States." Cancer research 74.11 (2014): 2913-2921.
16. Richman DM et al. Beyond gastric adenocarcinoma: Multimodality assessment of common and uncommon gastric neoplasms. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2017 Jan;42(1):124-140.
17. Gulland, Anne. "Global cancer prevalence is growing at" alarming pace," says WHO." BMJ 348 (2014).
18. Siegel, Rebecca L., Kimberly D. Miller, Ahmedin Jemal. "Cancer statistics, 2016." CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 66.1 (2016): 7-30.
19. Ryerson, A et al. "Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975‐2012, featuring the increasing incidence of liver cancer." Cancer. 2016 May 1;122(9):1312-37.
20. Hodi, F. Stephen, et al. "Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma." N Engl J Med 363.8 (2010): 711-723.
21. Miller et al. "Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016." CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 66.4 (2016): 271-289.
22. Dolmans, Dennis EJGJ, Dai Fukumura, Rakesh K. Jain. "Photodynamic therapy for cancer." Nat rev cancer 3.5 (2003): 380.
23. Hüseret al. "Systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of defunctioning stoma in low rectal cancer surgery." Ann Surg 248.1 (2008): 52-60.
24. Wagner et al. "Chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on aggregate data." J Clin Oncol 24.18 (2006): 2903-2909.
25. Ramirez et al. "Hormonal therapy for the management of grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma: a literature review." Gynecol Oncol 95.1 (2004): 133-138.
26. Yang Y. Cancer immunotherapy: harnessing the immune system to battle cancer. J Clin Invest. 2015 Sep;125(9):3335-7.
27. Safarzadeh, Elham, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Behzad Baradaran. "Herbal medicine as inducers of apoptosis in cancer treatment." Adv Pharm Bull 4.Suppl 1 (2014): 421.
28. Gordon et al. "Recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a randomized phase III study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus topotecan." J Clin Oncol 19.14 (2001): 3312-3322.
29. Basch et al. "Symptom monitoring with patient-reported outcomes during routine cancer treatment: a randomized controlled trial J Clin Oncol 34.6 (2016): 557.
30. Iwamoto, Takuya. "Clinical application of drug delivery systems in cancer chemotherapy: review of the efficacy and side effects of approved drugs." Biol Pharm Bull 36.5 (2013): 715-718.
31. Schover et al. "Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment." EJC Suppl 12.1 (2014): 41-53.
32. Barton et al. "Infertility, infertility treatment, and achievement of pregnancy in female survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort." The lancet oncology 14.9 (2013): 873-881.
33. Wasilewski-Masker, K., et al. "Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study." J Cancer Surviv 8.3 (2014): 437-447.
34. Coleman, R., et al. "Bone health in cancer patients: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines." Ann Oncol. 25.suppl_3 (2014): iii124-iii137.
35. Rivera, Edgardo, Mary Cianfrocca. "Overview of neuropathy associated with taxanes for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer." Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 75.4 (2015): 659-670.
36. Curigliano et al. "Cardiovascular toxicity induced by chemotherapy, targeted agents and radiotherapy: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines." Ann Oncol. 23.suppl_7 (2012): vii155-vii166.
37. Conte, PierFranco, and Antonio Frassoldati. "Aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: putting safety issues into perspective." Breast J. 13.1 (2007): 28-35.
38. Chambers, Suzanne K., et al. "A systematic review of the impact of stigma and nihilism on lung cancer outcomes." BMC cancer 12.1 (2012): 184.
39. Gordon et al. "Recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a randomized phase III study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus topotecan." J clin oncol 19.14 (2001): 3312-3322.
40. Carvalho et al. "Use of wild type or recombinant lactic acid bacteria as an alternative treatment for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases: a focus on inflammatory bowel diseases and mucositis." Front Microbiol. 8 (2017): 800.
41. de Oliveira Carvalho et al. "Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis expressing recombinant 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15 LOX-1) modulates chemically induced colitis in mice." Medical Research Archives 4.7 (2016).
42. Saez-Lara et al. "The role of probiotic lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and other related diseases: a systematic review of randomized human clinical trials." BioMed Research International. 2015 (2015).
43. Levit, R., G. de Giori Savoy, J. G. LeBlanc. "Vitamin Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria as Complementary Treatments for Intestinal Inflammation." Anti-inflammatory & anti-allergy agents in medicinal chemistry. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2018 May 2.
44. Niers et al. "The effects of selected probiotic strains on the development of eczema (the PandA study)." Allergy64.9 (2009): 1349-1358.
45. Soh, S. E., et al. "Probiotic supplementation in the first 6 months of life in at risk Asian infants–effects on eczema and atopic sensitization at the age of 1 year." Clinical & Experimental Allergy 39.4 (2009): 571-578.
46. Viljanen et al. "Probiotic effects on faecal inflammatory markers and on faecal IgA in food allergic atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome infants." Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 16.1 (2005): 65-71.
47. Kiatpapan, Pornpimon, et al. "Heterologous expression of a gene encoding cholesterol oxidase in probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii under the control of native promoters." J Biosci Bioeng. 92.5 (2001): 459-465.
48. Hlivak, P., et al. "One-year application of probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M-74 decreases serum cholesterol levels." Bratisl Lek Listy 106.2 (2005): 67-72.
49. Radice, Davide, and Alberto Redaelli. "Breast cancer management." Pharmacoeconomics 21.6 (2003): 383-396.
50. Berglund et al. "Effect of endocrine treatment on sexuality in premenopausal breast cancer patients: a prospective randomized study." J Clin Oncol.19.11 (2001): 2788-2796.
51. Day et al. "Health-related quality of life and tamoxifen in breast cancer prevention: a report from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study." J Clin Oncol .17.9 (1999): 2659-2659.
52. Fallowfield et al. "Tamoxifen for the prevention of breast cancer: psychosocial impact on women participating in two randomized controlled trials." J Clin Oncol. 19.7 (2001): 1885-1892.
53. Mortimer JE et al. Effect of tamoxifen on sexual functioning in patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:1488–92.
54. Mor, Vincent, Maili Malin, Susan Allen. "Age differences in the psychosocial problems encountered by breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1994;(16):191-7.
55. Savard, Josée, et al. "Cancer treatments and their side effects are associated with aggravation of insomnia: results of a longitudinal study." Cancer 121.10 (2015): 1703-1711.
56. Bentzen, Søren M. "Preventing or reducing late side effects of radiation therapy: radiobiology meets molecular pathology." Nat Rev Cancer 6.9 (2006): 702.
57. Allan, James M., Lois B. Travis. "Mechanisms of therapy-related carcinogenesis." Nat rev cancer 5.12 (2005): 943.
58. Wang M, Yin B, Wang HY, Wang RF. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy. Immunotherapy. 2014;6(12):1265-78.
59. Carlson, Matthew J., Kristina W. Thiel, Kimberly K. Leslie. "Past, present, and future of hormonal therapy in recurrent endometrial cancer." Int J Womens Health 6 (2014): 429.
60. Prigerson et al. "Chemotherapy use, performance status, and quality of life at the end of life." JAMA oncol. 1.6 (2015): 778-784.
61. Michael D, Farwell MD. How Imaging Biomarkers Can Inform Clinical Trials and Clinical Practice in the Era of Targeted Cancer Therapy. JAMA Oncol. 2015 Jul;1(4):421-2.
62. Sun H et al. Oligonucleotide aptamers: new tools for targeted cancer therapy. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2014 Jan 1;3.
63. Wang Yet al. Potentiating bacterial cancer therapy using hydroxychloroquine liposomes. J Control Release. 2018 May 4.
64. Gujrati V et al. Bioengineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles as cell-specific drug-delivery vehicles for cancer therapy. ACS nano. 2014 Jan 15;8(2):1525-37.
65. Song J, Zhang Y, Wang Q. P1. 03-051 Development of a Novel Microfluidic Device for Studying the Chemotaxis Mechanism of Bacterial Cancer Targeting. J Thorac Oncol. 2017 Nov 1;12(11):S1970.
66. Chu M et al. Functionalization of composite bacterial cellulose with C 60 nanoparticles for wound dressing and cancer therapy. RSC Adv. 2018;8(33):18197-203.
67. Gupta J, Bahadur D. Defect-Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Mg-Substituted ZnO Nanoparticles: Efficient Nanomaterials for Bacterial Inhibition and Cancer Therapy. ACS Omega. 2018 Mar 12;3(3):2956-65.
69. Yin H et al. Non-viral vectors for gene-based therapy. Nat Rev Genet. 2014 Aug;15(8):541.
70. Naldini L. Gene therapy returns to centre stage. Nat. 2015 Oct;526(7573):351.
71. Husain SR, Han J, Au P, Shannon K, Puri RK. Gene therapy for cancer: regulatory considerations for approval. Cancer gene therapy. 2015 Dec;22(12):554.
72. Malekshah OM, Chen X, Nomani A, Sarkar S, Hatefi A. Enzyme/prodrug systems for cancer gene therapy. Current pharmacology reports. 2016 Dec 1;2(6):299-308.
73. Riglar DT, Silver PA. Engineering bacteria for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Apr;16(4):214.
74. Din MO et al. Synchronized cycles of bacterial lysis for in vivo delivery. Nat. 2016 Aug;536(7614):81.
75. Teo PY, Cheng W, Hedrick JL, Yang YY. Co-delivery of drugs and plasmid DNA for cancer therapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016 Mar 1;98:41-63.
76. Zheng DW et al. Nat Commun. 2018 Apr 26;9(1):1680. 2018;9.
77. Lin IY, Van TT, Smooker PM. Live-attenuated bacterial vectors: tools for vaccine and therapeutic agent delivery. Vaccines. 2015 Nov 10;3(4):940-72.
78. Zitvogel L, Daillère R, Roberti MP, Routy B, Kroemer G. Anticancer effects of the microbiome and its products. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017 Aug;15(8):465.
79. Felgner S, Kocijancic D, Frahm M, Weiss S. Bacteria in cancer therapy: renaissance of an old concept. Int j microbiol. 2016;2016.
80. Weidle UH et al. Prospects of bacterial and plant protein-based immunotoxins for treatment of cancer. Cancer Genomics-Proteomics. 2014 Jan 1;11(1):25-38.
81. Hosseinidoust Z et al. Bioengineered and biohybrid bacteria-based systems for drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016 Nov 15;106:27-44.
82. TaherianFard A et al. Cloning and expression of C-terminal of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin and its biological activity. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2010;4(14): 1469-1474.
83. Dalmasso G, Cougnoux A, Delmas J, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Bonnet R. The bacterial genotoxin colibactin promotes colon tumor growth by modifying the tumor microenvironment. Gut Microbes. 2014 Sep 3;5(5):675-80.
84. Bachran C et al. Cytolethal distending toxin B as a cell-killing component of tumor-targeted anthrax toxin fusion proteins. Cell death & disease. 2015 Jan;5(1):e1003.
85. Dang L et al. Combination bacteriolytic therapy for the treatment of tumors. United States patent US 9,572,843. 2017 Feb 21.
86. Zhou S, Vogelstein B, Kinzler K, Kim K, Saha S, inventors; Johns Hopkins University, assignee. Use of bacteria, bacterial products, and other immunoregulatory entities in combination with anti-ctla-4 and/or anti-pd-1 antibodies to treat solid tumor malignancies. United States patent application US 15/301,163. 2017 Jan 26.
87. Kubiak AM, Minton NP. The potential of clostridial spores as therapeutic delivery vehicles in tumour therapy. Res Microbiol. 2015 May 1;166(4):244-54.
88. Fung TC, Artis D, Sonnenberg GF. Anatomical localization of commensal bacteria in immune cell homeostasis and disease. Immunol Rev. 2014 Jul 1;260(1):35-49.
89. Louis P, Hold GL, Flint HJ. The gut microbiota, bacterial metabolites and colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 Oct;12(10):661.
90. Luo CH, Huang CT, Su CH, Yeh CS. Bacteria-mediated hypoxia-specific delivery of nanoparticles for tumors imaging and therapy. Nano letters. 2016 May 9;16(6):3493-9.
91. Zhao F et al. Simultaneous inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl: Applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Bioresour Technol. 2016 May 1;207:24-30.
92. Nallar SC, Xu DQ, Kalvakolanu DV. Bacteria and genetically modified bacteria as cancer therapeutics: Current advances and challenges. Cytokine. 2017 Jan 1;89:160-72.
93. Torres W et al. Bacteria in cancer therapy: beyond immunostimulation. J Cancer Metastasis Treat 4 (2018): 4.
94. Chamekh M. Genetically Engineered Bacteria in Gene Therapy—Hopes and Challenges. Curr Gene Ther. 2015. InTech.
95. Taniguchi SI, Shimatani Y, Fujimori M. Tumor-targeting therapy using gene-engineered anaerobic-nonpathogenic Bifidobacterium longum. Bacterial Therapy of Cancer: Methods and Protocols. 2016:49-60.
96. Kaimala S, Al Sbiei A, Cabral-Marques O, Fernandez-Cabezudo MJ, Al-Ramadi BK. Attenuated Bacteria as immunotherapeutic tools for cancer treatment. Front oncol. 2018;8:136.
97. Podder S, Rakshit S, Ponnusamy M, Nandi D. Efficacy of Bacteria in Cancer Immunotherapy: Special Emphasis on the Potential of Mycobacterial Species. Clin Cancer Drugs. 2016 Oct 1;3(2):100-8.
98. Staedtke V, Roberts NJ, Bai RY, Zhou S. Clostridium novyi-NT in cancer therapy. Genes & Diseases. 2016 Jun 1;3(2):144-52.
99. Sarotra P, Medhi B. Use of bacteria in cancer therapy In Current Strategies in Cancer Gene Therapy. Springer, Cham, 2016. 111-121.
100. Shin MC et al. Recombinant TAT–gelonin fusion toxin: Synthesis and characterization of heparin/protamine‐regulated cell transduction. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2015 Jan 1;103(1):409-19.
101. Konstantinopoulos PA, Ceccaldi R, Shapiro GI, D'Andrea AD. Homologous recombination deficiency: exploiting the fundamental vulnerability of ovarian cancer. Cancer Discov. 2015 Nov 1;5(11):1137-54.
102. Yeo CC, Abu Bakar F, Chan WT, Espinosa M, Harikrishna JA. Heterologous expression of toxins from bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems in eukaryotic cells: strategies and applications. Toxins. 2016 Feb 19;8(2):49.
103. Pires DP, Cleto S, Sillankorva S, Azeredo J, Lu TK. Genetically engineered phages: a review of advances over the last decade. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2016 Sep 1;80(3):523-43.
104. McFadden DG et al. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2016 Oct 18;113(42):E6409-17.
105. Bachanova V et al. Phase I study of a bispecific ligand-directed toxin targeting CD22 and CD19 (DT2219) for refractory B-cell malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Mar 15;21(6):1267-72.
106. Jones P, Wilcoxen K, Rowley M, Toniatti C. Niraparib: a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor for the treatment of tumors with defective homologous recombination. J Med Chem. 2015 Apr 23;58(8):3302-14
107. Piñero-Lambea C, Ruano-Gallego D, Fernández LÁ. Engineered bacteria as therapeutic agents. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015 Dec 1;35:94-102.
108. Mobergslien A et al. Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum induces immune responses to cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and maturation of dendritic cells. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015 Nov 2;11(11):2664-73.
109. Han JW et al. Active tumor-therapeutic liposomal bacteriobot combining a drug (paclitaxel)-encapsulated liposome with targeting bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium). Sens Actuators B Chem. 2016 Mar 1;224:217-24.
110. Hoffman RM, Zhao M. Methods for the development of tumor-targeting bacteria. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2014 Jul 1;9(7):741-50.
111. Murakami T et al. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with doxorubicin eradicate soft tissue sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. Oncotarget. 2016 Mar 15;7(11):12783.
112. Zhang Y, Miwa S, Zhang N, Hoffman RM, Zhao M. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R arrests growth of breast-cancer brain metastasis. Oncotarget. 2015 Feb;6(5):2615.
113. Hoffman RM. Back to the future: are tumor-targeting bacteria the next-generation cancer therapy?. Gene Therapy of Solid Cancers: Methods and Protocols. 2015:239-60.
114. Hoffman RM. Bacterial therapy of cancer: Methods and protocols. Springer; 2016.
115. Kiyuna T et al. High efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on a doxorubicin-and dactolisib-resistant follicular dendritic-cell sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft PDOX nude mouse model. Oncotarget. 2016 May 31;7(22):33046.
116. Hiroshima Y et al. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R arrests a chemo-resistant patient soft-tissue sarcoma in nude mice. PloS one. 2015 Aug 3;10(8):e0134324.
117. Collignon J, Lousberg L, Schroeder H, Jerusalem G. Triple-negative breast cancer: treatment challenges and solutions. Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy. 2016;8:93.
118. Zugazagoitia J et al. Current challenges in cancer treatment. Clin Ther. 2016 Jul 1;38(7):1551-66.
119. Shin MC et al. Cell‐penetrating peptides: Achievements and challenges in application for cancer treatment. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2014 Feb 1;102(2):575-87.
120. Zhao M et al. Tumor-targeting bacterial therapy with amino acid auxotrophs of GFP-expressing Salmonella typhimurium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 18;102(3):755-60.
121. Iida N et al. Commensal bacteria control cancer response to therapy by modulating the tumor microenvironment. Science. 2013 Nov 22;342(6161):967-70.
122. Kievit E et al. Superiority of yeast over bacterial cytosine deaminase for enzyme/prodrug gene therapy in colon cancer xenografts. Cancer res. 1999 Apr 1;59(7):1417-21.
123. Anderson JC, Clarke EJ, Arkin AP, Voigt CA. Environmentally controlled invasion of cancer cells by engineered bacteria. J mol biol. 2006 Jan 27;355(4):619-27.
124. Fox ME et al. Anaerobic bacteria as a delivery system for cancer gene therapy: in vitro activation of 5-fluorocytosine by genetically engineered clostridia. Gene therapy. 1996 Feb;3(2):173-8.
125. Cometta A et al. Monotherapy with meropenem versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as empiric therapy for fever in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. The International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto Infection Program. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996 May 1;40(5):1108-15.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.