Volume 2, Issue 2 (11-2020)                   2020, 2(2): 14-20 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

A.M O, B O, K O, K B, K M. Evaluating the Genotoxic and Proximate Analysis of Ethanolic Extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides. Plant Biotechnology Persa 2020; 2 (2) :14-20
URL: http://pbp.medilam.ac.ir/article-1-55-en.html
Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos-Nigeria , oloism@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1337 Views)
Lecaniodiscus cupanioides has been playing vital roles in traditional therapies in Nigeria towards management of several ailments. In the quest to investigating its genotoxicity, 30 mice weighing between 20 – 25g were placed in three groups of 10 mice each. Groups A and  B, orally administered 100 and  400 mg kg-1 of the extract respectively for 49 days,  group C received distilled water as control. At expiration of treatment the mice were sacrificed via jugular puncture. Femurs were removed to extract the bone marrow for genotoxic assay. Heavy metal and proximate analysis was investigated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Bone marrow analysis revealed dose-related increase in the number of MN PCEs in treatments compared to control. A significant decrease in the number of Bud PCE was observed between treatment and control. Insignificant dose-dependent increase in MN NCE and significant dose related increase was observed in 100 mg kg-1 treatment, also extract did not affect PCE /PCE +NCE ratio.  In the proximate analysis, carbohydrate was highest, followed by crude fiber, protein and ash respectively. From heavy metals evaluation, Zn was the highest, all metals observed were within permissible level. The insignificant result of PCE/PCE+NCE or MNE PCEs against control may infer that the extract is not aneugenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic or genotoxic to the bone marrow. Availability of Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Cd at permissible level suggest the plant possess some health potentials. The extract can be affirmed to be devoid of genotoxicity within period, doses and battery of exposure.
Full-Text [PDF 559 kb]   (787 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2020/08/22 | Accepted: 2020/09/2 | Published: 2020/10/20

1. Abbasi, A., Khana, M., Mushtaq, A., Muhammad, Z., Sarwat, J.and Shahzia, S. (2010). Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province. Ethnopharmacology , 128:322–335.
2. World Health Organisation (WHO). (2014). Traditional Medicine Strategy. Geneva; 10(6): 15 – 20.
3. Nafiu, M., Abdulsalam, T., Jimoh, R and Kazeem, M. (2015). Ameliorative Effect of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides (Sapindaceae) Aqueous Root Extract in Loperamide-Induced Constipated Rats Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 14 (6): 1057-1062.
4. Olaide, N. and Ajiboye, T. (2012). Aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides restores the alterations in testicular parameters of sexually impaired male rats Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 1(2): 120-124.
5. Yemitan, O. and Adeyemi, O. (2005). CNS depressant activity of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides, Fitoterapia 76 (5):412–418.
6. Adeyemi, O., Yemitan O. and Adeogun O. (2004). Analgesic activity of the aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides. West African Journal of Pharmacological and Drug Research 20 (1-2): 10-14.
7. Alimba, C. and Bakare, A. (2016). In vivo micronucleus test in the assessment of cytogenotoxicity of landill leachates in three animal models from various ecological habitats. Ecotoxicolgy, 25: 310-319.
8. Ayaz, M., Junaid, M., Subhan, F., Ullah, F., Sadiq, A., Ahmad, S. Imran, M., Kamal, Z., Hussain, S. and Shah, S. (2014). Heavy metals analysis, phytochemical, phytotoxic and anthelmintic investigations of crude methanolic extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14:465 -474.
9. AOAC. Minerals: In Official Methods of analysis, Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists 2010 16(3): 99 – 103.
10. Chin, Y., Balunas, M., Chai, H. and Kinghorn, A. (2006): Drug discovery from natural sources. AAPS J., 8: E239-53.
11. Pcerangeli, G., Vital, G. and Rivera, W. (2009): Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Chromolaenaodorata (L. F.) king and rabinson and Uncariaperrottetii (A. Rich) Merr extracts. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(7):511-518.
12. Sermakkani, M. and Thangapandian, V. (2012): GC-MS analysis of Cassia itallica leaf methanol extract. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 5(2):90-94.
13. Ferreira, S., Guimarães, A., Ferraria, F., Carneiro, C., Nogueira de Paiva, N. and Guimarães, D. (2014). Assessment of acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Lychnophora pinaster (Brazilian arnica) Revista Brasilia de Farmacognosia 24: 553-560.
14. Ajayi, A., Ayodele, E., Ben-Azu B., Aderibigbe A. and Umukoro, S. (2019). Evaluation of neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity effects of acute and sub-acute oral administration of unripe ackee (Blighia sapida) fruit extract. Toxicology Reports 6: 656–665.
15. Murbach, T., Glavits, R., Hirka, G., Endres, J., Clewell, A. and Szakonyine, I. (2017). A 28-day oral toxicology study of an aqueous extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Fernblock®), Toxicology Reports. 4: 494–501.
16. Shokrzadeh, M., Chabra, A., Naghshvar, F. and Ahmadi, A. (2013). The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells. The Scientific World Journal, Article ID 980480, 8 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/980480.
17. Habibi, E., Shokrzadeh, M., Ahmadi, A., Chabra, A, Naghshvar, F. and Keshavarz-Maleki, R. (2015). Genoprotective effects of Origanum vulgare ethanolic extract against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells. Pharmaceutical Biology, 53(1): 92–97.
18. Krishna, G. and Hayashi, M. (2000). In vivo rodent micronucleus assay: protocol, conduct and data interpretation. Mutation Research/Funndamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 455(1-2): 155-166.
19. Alabi, O., Osifo-Whiskey, E., Yadi, P., Lawal, M. and Bakare, A. (2014). Tobacco industry wastewater-induced genotoxicity in mice using the bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. Cytologia, 79(2): 215-225.
20. Carrasco, K., Tilbury, K. and Mayers, M. (1990). Assessment of the piscine micronuclei test as an in situ biological indiator of chemical contaminants effects. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 47(11): 2123-2136.
21. Ozkan, F., Gunduz, S., Berkoz, M. and Hunt, A. (2011). Induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to sub-lethal cadmium doses. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 35: 585-592.
22. Alimba, C., Aladeyelu, A., Nwabisi, I. and Bakare, A. (2018). Micronucleus cytome assay in the differential assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium and lead in Ametophrynus regularis. EXCLI Journal, 17; 89pp.
23. World Health Organization. 2004. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition (2e), 2004 http://www.who.int/vmnis/en/.
24. Keen C. and Zidenberg-Cherr, S. (1994). Manganese toxicity in humans and experimental animals. Manganese in health and disease, 1(1):193-205.
25. Muszyńska, A., Pałka, J., Gorodkiewicz, E. (2000). The mechanism of daunorubicin-induced inhibition of prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts and its implication to impaired collagen biosynthesis. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 52(2):149-155.
26. Prohaska, J. (2011). Impact of copper limitation on expression and function of multicopper oxidases (ferroxidases). Advances in Nutrition, 2(2):.89-95.
27. Vincent, J. (2000). Elucidating a biological role for chromium at a molecular level. Accounts of Chemical Research, 33(7):503-510.
28. King, J. and Cousins R. (2014). Zinc. In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler T.R.,eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2510pp.
29. Oladimeji-Salami, J., Akindele, A. and Adeyemi, O. (2014). Effects of ethanolic dried leaf extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides on antioxidant enzymes and biochemical parameters in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 155(3):1603-1608.
30. Sobukola, O., Adeniran, O., Odedairo, A. and Kajihausa, O. (2010). Heavy metal levels of some fruits and leafy vegetables from selected markets in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 4(6): 389-393.
31. Gajalakshmi, V. Iswarya, Ashwini, R., Divya, G., Mythili, S. and Sathiavelu, A. (2012). Evaluation of heavy metals in medicinal plants growing in Vellore Districts. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2 (5):1457-1461.
32. Lakshmi, P. and Vijayaraghavan, R. (2015). Insight into the mechanism of antibacterial activity of ZnO: surface defects mediated reactive oxygen species even in the dark. Langmuir, 31(33):9155-9162
33. Pandey M, Abidi A, Singh S, Singh R. Nutritional Evaluation of Leafy Vegetable Paratha. Journal of Human Ecology 2006; 19 (2): 155-156.
34. Emebu, P. and Anyika, J. (2011). Proximate and mineral composition of Kale (Brassica oleracea) grown in Delta State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10(2): 190 – 194.
35. Ejelonu, B., Lasisi, A., Olaremu, A. and Ejelonu O. (2011). The chemical constituents of calabash (Crescentia cujete). African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(84): 19631-19636.
36. Achi, N., Chimaraoke Onyeabo, C., Ekeleme-Egedigwe, C. and Onyeanula, J. (2017). Phytochemical, Proximate Analysis, Vitamin and Mineral Composition of Aqueous Extract of Ficus capensis leaves in South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 7 (03); 117-122.
37. Ejoh, R., Tchouanguep, M. and Fokou, E. (1996). Nutrient compostion of the leaves and flower of Colocassia esculenta and the fruits of Solanum melongena. Plant Food Human Nutrition, 49: 107-112.
38. Abolaji, O., Adebayo, A. and Odesanmi O. (2007). Nutritional qualities of three medicinal plant parts (Xylopia aethiopica, Blighia sapida and Parinari polyandra) commonly used by pregnant women in the Western Part of Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2007; 6 (6): 665-668.
39. Olowokudejo, J., 2008. Conservation and Sustainable Uses of Medicinal Plants in Nigeria. A Textbook of Medicinal Plants from Nigeria 159pp.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.